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The route of modern carbon fiber industrialization is the precursor fiber carbonization process.

The route of modern carbon fiber industrialization is the precursor fiber carbonization process.

(Summary description)The route of modern carbon fiber industrialization is the precursor fiber carbonization process. The composition and carbon content of the three raw materials used are shown in the table.

The route of modern carbon fiber industrialization is the precursor fiber carbonization process.

(Summary description)The route of modern carbon fiber industrialization is the precursor fiber carbonization process. The composition and carbon content of the three raw materials used are shown in the table.

Information

The route of modern carbon fiber industrialization is the precursor fiber carbonization process. The composition and carbon content of the three raw materials used are shown in the table.

The name of the fibril used in the manufacture of carbon fiber. Chemical component carbon content/% carbon fiber yield/% viscose fiber (C6H10O5) n4521~35 polyacrylonitrile fiber (C3H3N) n6840~55 pitch fiber C, H9580~90

The process of using these three types of fibrils to make carbon fibers includes: stabilization (air at 200-400°C, or chemical treatment with flame retardant reagents), carbonization (400-1400°C, nitrogen) and graphitization (above 1800°C) , Under argon atmosphere). In order to improve the bonding performance of carbon fiber and composite matrix, it is necessary to carry out surface treatment, sizing, drying and other processes.

Another method of making carbon fibers is the vapor growth method. The mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is reacted at a high temperature of 1000°C in the presence of a catalyst to produce discontinuous chopped carbon fibers with a maximum length of 50cm. Its structure is different from polyacrylonitrile-based or pitch-based carbon fiber, easy to graphitize, good mechanical properties, high conductivity, and easy to form interlayer compounds. (See vapor-grown carbon fiber)

Classification and naming

At present, the main products of carbon fiber are polyacrylonitrile-based, pitch-based and viscose-based. Each type of product is divided into many varieties due to different types of fibrils, processes and final carbon fiber properties. The term "carbon fiber" is actually a general term for a variety of carbon fibers, so classification and naming are very important.

In the late 1970s, the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) had stipulated the classification and naming of carbon fibers. First, use PAN (polyacrylonitrile), MP (mesophase pitch) and VS (viscose) to indicate the type of carbon fiber, and then use lowercase English letters to indicate the heat treatment temperature, such as lht (representing the heat treatment temperature, lower than 1400°C), hht (heat treatment The temperature is above 2000 ℃), and then add the symbol indicating the performance (such as HT for high strength, HM high mode, SHT super high strength, HTHS high strength and high strain, IM medium mode and UHM super high mode, etc.). At the same time, it is pointed out that polyacrylonitrile-based, viscose-based and ordinary pitch-based carbon fibers are all polymer carbons that are difficult to graphitize, while mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers and vapor-grown carbon fibers are easily graphitized carbons.

At the Third International Carbon Fiber Conference (London, 1985), it was suggested that carbon fibers be divided into the following five levels according to their mechanical properties.

Ultra-high modulus (UHM): the modulus is above 395GPa;

High modulus level (HM): the modulus is between 310~395GPa;

Intermediate modulus (IM): the modulus is between 255~310GPa;

Ultra High Strength (UHT): The strength is above 3.5GPa,

The modulus is below 255GPa;

High intensity level (HT): the intensity reaches 3.5GPa.

Both of these classification methods have shortcomings. Now the classification of high-performance carbon fiber products is marked by the manufacturer: the type of fibril, the number of monofilament holes, the diameter, the arrangement (such as parallel, entanglement, twisting, etc.), with or without surface treatment (and its type), and with or without sizing (And the type of slurry) and so on. Some important high-performance product names and properties can be seen in polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers and pitch-based carbon fibers.

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