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Nuclear graphite, graphite material used in the nuclear industry

Nuclear graphite, graphite material used in the nuclear industry

(Summary description)Nuclear graphite is a graphite material used in the nuclear industry. There are neutron moderators and reflectors for nuclear reactors, thermal column graphite for isotope production, spherical graphite and block graphite for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, and so on.

Nuclear graphite, graphite material used in the nuclear industry

(Summary description)Nuclear graphite is a graphite material used in the nuclear industry. There are neutron moderators and reflectors for nuclear reactors, thermal column graphite for isotope production, spherical graphite and block graphite for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, and so on.

Information

Nuclear graphite is a graphite material used in the nuclear industry. There are neutron moderators and reflectors for nuclear reactors, thermal column graphite for isotope production, spherical graphite and block graphite for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, and so on.

The advantages and disadvantages of graphite as a reactor material are as follows:

(1) Graphite has a high scattering cross section and a very low thermal neutron absorption cross section. The higher scattering cross section is used to slow down neutrons, and the low absorption cross section prevents neutrons from being absorbed, so that nuclear reactors can use a small amount of fuel to reach the critical point. Or normal operation.

(2) Graphite is a high temperature resistant material. Its triple point is 4024℃ at 15MPa. Therefore, it cannot be manufactured by melting, casting, forging and other thermal processing methods, but can only be manufactured by methods similar to powder metallurgy. It does not decrease in strength with temperature like metal, but slightly increases. It will not cause problems when applied below 2000°C.

(3) Graphite has good thermal conductivity and can effectively reduce the temperature gradient in the stack without generating too much thermal stress.

(4) The chemical properties of graphite are very stable. In addition to oxidation and water vapor at high temperatures, it is resistant to acid, alkali, and salt corrosion, so it can be used as a core component of molten salt nuclear reactors and uranium-bismuth nuclear reactors.

(5) Graphite has excellent radiation resistance and can be used in the reactor for 30-40 years.

(6) Graphite has good workability and can be processed into various shapes of components.

(7) Graphite is rich in raw materials and cheap, and it is easy to make various nuclear graphites with high purity, high strength and different density requirements. However, graphite also has shortcomings. It is an anisotropic crystal structure, distributed in layers, and atoms are densely packed in a , B crystal plane, the closest distance between atoms in the same layer is 0.141nm, which are covalently bonded to each other, and have a strong binding force; while the layer distance is 0.335nm, the interlayer binding force is Van der Waals force, and the binding force is weak. This anisotropy is strongly manifested in graphite's physics, strength, irradiation and other behaviors.

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